Circular bowing, in addition to the standard frog to tip bow direction, requires the performer to make a circle with their right arm during the bow stroke. This creates pitch as well as bow hair noise during each rotation.
The rhythm, speed and circumference of the circle can be free or specified.
This technique is most effective in the lower range of the instrument as more of the string can freely resonate within the circular motion. As the pitch ascends, there is less vibrating string length and the pitch to noise ratio decreases.
Dynamic Range: pp-ff